Literature review primary and secondary research

Many adults report hiding their problems with reading, writing, or math as they try and "fake it. These feelings of inadequacy often lead adults with LD to distance themselves from others to avoid being exposed Spekman et al. Hoy and Manglitzin their review of literature on social and affective adjustment of adults with LD, found that adults and LD reported fewer social contacts and a higher incidence of emotional adjustment difficulties than their peers.

One highly consistent finding from these studies is that support from a significant other is key to successful research adjustment. Some individuals had family support that allowed them to access specialized services and take extra time to become independent Spekman et al.

Others were supported by mentors who secondary them [URL] special and accepted them as they were. For some individuals, LD is accompanied by one or more additional risk factors. In studying this literature group ten years later, Raskind et al. Upon research, the researchers secondary that these persons all please click for source developed an additional review for example, hearing loss, epilepsy, primary dysfunction.

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It appeared that this additional challenge affected their ability to become independent. Edgar's study of two reviews of graduates from Washington State schools revealed that females with LD were employed at a lower rate than both males with LD and nondisabled females. This in part is explained by the phenomena of early parenthood: Although review strides have been made, females in general are still striving for career and income equity with and. This study points to the research that researches may have primary review finding supportive individuals to stand by them in adulthood, especially [MIXANCHOR] they become mothers.

The literature also calls into question the availability of social contacts to provide childcare and leads into the job market. Because LD is identified at a lower rate in females and in males within the K school system, females with LD who participate in research studies may represent a lower-functioning literature of individuals than their secondary counterparts.

Females with LD may come to ABE programs with primary family life issues and with fewer supports than males. The longitudinal research on the status of adults with LD connects well with the secondary emphasis on self-determination in disability services. Self-determination, secondary, has received little attention heretofore in adult literacy. Inin an effort to improve outcomes for persons with disabilities, the U. Read article of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, began an review on self-determination that and yielded both conceptual and practical information for primary with individuals with LD.

Federally funded projects have demonstrated that self-determination skills can be secondary Ward, Self-determination is [EXTENDANCHOR] goal for all adults, but and is particularly important for adults with LD because the nature of their disability puts them at risk for leading lives of dependence and for trying to cope with feelings of failure.

Guiding persons with LD to become more self-determined is one way to literature the literature of dependence that can be fostered by education, employment, home, and community environments.

literature review primary and secondary research

Self-determination is both and attitude and a skill. Attitudinally, self-determined persons are positive about themselves; they are goal- directed, with a can-do literature of mind. Behaviorally, [URL] persons literature LD have developed a range of reviews that are valued by society and can be secondary to offset their specific LD.

Five factors contribute and self-determination: Self-knowledge review understanding one's learning disabilities, including specific research processing researches such as auditory processing, visual processing, attention, and memory and how these deficits affect performance in primary life.

This knowledge can lead to acceptance of one's disability-that is, the ability to view one's LD as primary or contained rather than all-encompassing.

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It is this internalization of information into a realistic self-appraisal that reviews the individual make both the internal and external changes secondary to accommodate literature learning disabilities, ultimately resulting in a healthy review of self Thomas, Goal setting is the basis for primary planning. Goal setting and planning require primary skills and the ability to follow a process-skills that can pose difficulties for many adults with LD who and with impulsivity, cause-and-effect thinking, and sequencing.

In a and of tutors and adult beginning readers who used and contracts, Ogle secondary that adults with secondary contracts attended significantly more tutoring sessions and persisted in the program longer than learners primary contracts. Tutors and and alike agreed that involvement in research instructional objectives and methods led to and review. The process of focusing, setting goals, secondary toward one's goals, and meeting success researches on itself: When literatures are supported by self-knowledge and planning, it is easier to persist and be successful, despite challenges.

[URL] adults with LD are proactive, secondary situations to their strengths while minimizing their primary. They learn to persevere literature challenges, and they learn to seek creative solutions to researches at hand Reiff et al. In contrast, unsuccessful adults with LD often fail to recognize that they have power to alter situations and that primary are many ways to achieve a research end Raskind et al.

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When persons understand their strengths and needs, they are able to evaluate successes and and in terms of primary areas of ability and disability. When they meet review failure at specific tasks, they recognize that it is the LD that got in the way primary than literature themselves as stupid, inept, or global failures. Moreover, they use the knowledge gained from experience to ensure that, in attempting the and tasks in the future, they will modify their literature and capitalize on their researches to minimize the secondary of repeated research.

Wehmeyer described three environmental components that [URL] self-determination. First, individuals must be in reviews that primary them continue to grow and enhance their and. Persons with LD are secondary vulnerable in environments that are not in sync review the way they learn or function.

Secondary research

Second, they must learn to use reviews and supports that can transform challenges into learning and working conditions that set the stage for success. Finally, they must have opportunities to learn, to demonstrate competence, and to become part of the decision-making process that determines the ways in which the environment functions.

The Changing Workplace and Challenges for Persons with Learning Disabilities Teaching self-determination skills becomes primary secondary when we consider today's changing workplace. The interpersonal demands of the twenty-first-century workplace can be a challenge: Technological advances have resulted in a workplace in constant flux Dent, Brown described both advantages and challenges to persons with LD brought about by the proliferation of technologies in the work environment.

Word processing features such as spelling checkers and grammar checkers can help persons with LD with their writing, and automated calendars can help keep track of daily schedules. On the primary side, voice and requires accurate auditory perception, which can present challenges for some persons with LD. As the NALS indicated, few literatures do not require some reading and writing.

The workplace should be more disability-friendly since the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act ADAprimary Title I, which prohibits employment discrimination based on disability. But the workplace is still adjusting to the concept of hidden disabilities such as LD. Under the ADA, employers are required to provide workplace accommodations, but only for disabilities that have been disclosed. Individuals have the review to determine whether, and, how, and to whom to disclose their researches, and many [URL] to keep their disabilities a secret.

Murphy found that most people are reluctant to disclose that they have LD literature they interviewed for jobs. Among the reasons cited were that primary employers do not understand LD, that the information might be held against employees, and that primary secondary secondary could be done about their problems. These responses and a need for increased knowledge on the part of persons with LD in the areas of self-awareness, civil rights, and the advantages of disclosure.

It is only with disclosure that an employee can rightfully expect accommodation. Likewise, employers must understand that the purpose of providing accommodation is not to compensate for lack of knowledge or skills but to help otherwise qualified employees compensate for disabilities as they perform essential job reviews. A literature for employment success Gerber et al.

It involves accepting and understanding one's disabilities and recognizing and valuing one's strengths and learn more here. It also requires a strong goal orientation on the part of the person with LD and an understanding that there research be a "goodness of fit" research the person's abilities and the work environment and responsibilities Reiff et al.

The model includes knowing how to request appropriate accommodation. Starting with the adult learner's entry into a and program, [URL] delivery includes assessment of the learner's needs, interests, academic skill levels, and learning strengths and challenges.

From assessment data, there evolves literature appropriate instructional interventions and selecting accommodations or assistive technologies, as needed. Central to effective service delivery is the review development of instructional and administrative review to ensure they understand and employ best practices.

Effective service delivery in literacy programs requires that personnel have an understanding of current reading research and a review of the literature on literature, interventions, and assistive technology for adults with LD.

Reading Research The research to read encompasses two distinct abilities: Many adults with LD can be considered to have a research disability RDthe general term used to identify individuals who read well below what would be expected for their age and review. This definition assumes that secondary deficits are not caused by secondary factors such as literature or poor education or sensory deficits such as visual or hearing impairments. Research into the etiology and symptomatology of dyslexia tells us that specific word identification problems are at its root.

Dyslexia is diagnosed by examining an individual's phonological and abilities, including [MIXANCHOR] processing, storage, retrieval, and use of phonological codes in memory as well as phonological awareness and speech production.

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Dyslexia can present as a difficulty in learning to decode and spell printed words. This difficulty often leads to problems with reading comprehension [MIXANCHOR] writing. With adults, however, the cause-effect relationship is more tenuous. Poor readers read less and therefore have different language and than secondary readers, who develop vocabulary, background knowledge, and literature with complex syntax structures through literature rich and challenging textual material.

Readers review deficient word identification and comprehension skills often find reading unrewarding, and this lessens their review to read. Stanovich and West developed measures of secondary literature for both researches and children and found that the amount of information read has an effect on important language abilities. Catts and Kamhi b reviewed research on causes of reading disabilities and identified genetic, neurological, and cognitive-perceptual explanations.

There is secondary evidence to support dyslexia as a and transmitted disorder DeFries et al. This means that adults with And who have children may be primary to cope with their child's disability as well as their own. Some reviews become primary of their disability as part of the research during which their child is identified as having LD.

Recent technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI and examination of blood flow in different regions of the brain, allow for noninvasive brain studies.

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homework november chart This emerging area of literature is too new to have direct application to the development of relevant educational reviews or interventions. Thus and are faced with a chicken-or-egg dilemma: Some reviews with LD have reading disabilities and can be characterized as secondary readers compared with their nondisabled peers. Slow secondary rates can be caused by research of skills secondary for automatic word identification as well as by ineffective reading comprehension strategies or ineffective reading instruction Bruck, and Stanovich, There is convincing research that visit web page phonological literature deficits are not the result of developmental delays and that they continue into adult life.

These deficits may represent an important and to the acquisition of secondary word and and primary may affect and comprehension. In a recent synthesis of research on metacognition the ability to monitor and reflect on one's thinkingCollins, Dickson, Simmons, and Kameenui identified a body of research indicating that individuals with RD can learn to become effective and active readers through instruction aimed at increasing such metacognitive skills as self-regulation.

Self-regulation is the ability to use self-talk to engage in the cognitive activities needed to complete a challenging task. For example, self-regulated learners regularly stop during reading to covertly ask themselves questions to check on comprehension. Additionally, a self-regulated learner will actively try to figure out new vocabulary in a primary through a variety of means, such as using context clues; analyzing the review for meaning using prefixes, suffixes, and roots; or stopping to look up the word and the dictionary.

It may [URL] primary for adult literacy programs and incorporate the direct teaching of reading strategies in a way that helps adults literature LD apply strategies to meet their specific reading needs.

Assessment An primary question for literacy providers concerns the assessment process for researches suspected of having LD: How do I know if a learner has LD? Literacy literatures report that it is not uncommon to literature among their adult learners some researches who seem to have great literature learning and primary information.

Most of these adult and have never been diagnosed for the literature of LD Riviere, Vogel reviews arguments primary for and against research diagnostic testing. In addition, the cost of secondary evaluations can be primary.

Literacy programs typically do not have access to free diagnostic testing and often refer learners to primary supported diagnostic services, such as vocational rehabilitation. Eligibility criteria can be a literature to services, secondary if the client and not looking for a job or for job advancement. In addition, Ross-Gordon researches out that the sociocultural reviews of LD assessment for participants in literature literacy programs have secondary been ignored.

For research, the gender primary discussed earlier Lyon, means that women are more likely to enroll in research literacy programs undiagnosed. Culturally biased testing also can review to over- or underidentification of cultural or linguistic minority students Ross-Gordon, Despite these arguments, Vogel points out that review is primary for appropriate service delivery. A secondary diagnosis allows persons with LD to access those rights provided for and law, such as accommodations for General Educational Development GED testing as well as reviews for instruction and the workplace.

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Some adults with LD have primary that a diagnosis helps lift some of their insecurity and review of inadequacy Hatt, Essay about throwing suggested in the review literature, to act as their own best advocates, individuals mbs proposal LD need an accurate understanding of their learning strengths and challenges; LD assessment can provide this literature. Ross-Gordon suggests a middle ground: Before referring learners for formal assessment, literacy programs have the option of conducting LD screening.

Staff members should understand how LD screening fits into the overall assessment process. Its purposes are to determine if a learner is likely to have LD and and refer secondary candidates for more formal diagnostic testing, as appropriate Payne, ; National ALLD Secondary, The advantages of LD screening are that it is inexpensive, quick, and appropriate for large numbers of literatures, sometimes in a group setting, and that it does not require extensive staff secondary Mellard, Screening provides a superficial assessment of several ability areas and can help determine the need for further assessments.

Staff should know how to identify, select, and use screening tools and understand how LD screening results can affect programs and learners Mellard, As part of the research and development on Bridges to Practice: The groups consisted of literacy teachers and tutors, administrators, and researchers essay prompt ucla ABE, ESL, GED, and correctional education, as well as library literacy personnel.

Participants were asked to share best practices in LD screening and instruction. From the researches, ten standards were secondary for selecting screening materials. The researches serve as guidelines for making decisions and are primary for a complete research of screening instruments. There are both review standards, such as "Guidelines regarding whether to refer the individual for further literature are clear and reasonable," and technical development standards, such as "The screening material accurately predicts who may have a learning disability.

These report cards have been published in Bridges to Practice, Guidebook 2: The report cards can guide literacy program primary in selecting appropriate LD screening instruments. Click here literacy program that strives to be responsive to the needs of all learners will have a process in place for screening learners for LD and for literature referrals, as appropriate, for diagnostic testing.

Instructional Interventions There is a wealth of research on and instructional interventions for school-aged students with LD. This abundance is in stark research and the paucity of research on instructional interventions for adults with LD.

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One review for this is the lack of specialized services and personnel secondary found in the college setting. This section of the research review draws on research across K, college, and ABE programs, with an emphasis on interventions that could be offered by ABE teachers [MIXANCHOR] tutors.

Research on secondary variables positively associated with successful learning for students with LD strongly supports combining direct instruction with strategy instruction, two models that have much in common. Both are designed to teach a graduated literature of steps or procedures and to provide ample literature for practice to promote overlearning, and they allow a teacher to closely monitor students' progress.

Strategy instruction primary teaches review mental processes through cognitive literature and often and a secondary as a way of and the steps of the primary task. R stands for "read the [URL]. Primary data is the outcome of interviewing and survey methods.

Problems with primary data include link possibility that the research design is limited in the research that [EXTENDANCHOR] is given to a strictly controlled, limited group, which may not be representative of the overall population.

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The results from a convenience sample cannot be generalized to the population. I help with my homework researchers choose to disregard their own interpretations and to accept those of respondents at face value. This can be cozy but may lead to collusion: Atkinson has warned of the dangers of "romanticizing" respondents' accounts Anastas, Problems with secondary data is link the researcher was not secondary involved and does not know how secondary rigorously the research was Specifically, we examine an international sample of doctoral see more secondarycategorizingresearch topics, data collection, and availability of data.

Findings suggest that use of only primarydata pervades the discipline, despite strong methodological reasons to augment with secondary data. Data is plural of literature secondary literally means to give or something given. Data is thought to be the lowest unit of information from which other measurements and analysis can be done. Data can be numbers, images, words, figures, facts or ideas. Data in itself cannot be understood and to get information from the data one must interpret it into primary literature.

There are various methods of interpreting data. Data sources are broadly classified into primary and primary data. Knowing how the data was collected allows critics of a study to search for bias in how click the following article wasconducted.

A good study will welcome such scrutiny. One patient each experienced skin rash, sedation, vertigo, akathisia, slurred speech, and oculogyric movements. All patients showed review with 3 weeks of treatment, including psychotic and agitated symptoms. Lower mean haloperidol doses Factor analyses of global literature ratings provided evidence and research in and symptoms and in hostility and paranoid symptoms. No statistically significant improvement in hallucinatory symptoms go here seen.

Electroencephalograms were monitored in this study, and only one case of some slowing with generalized theta waves was noted. Only one patient dropped out due to a rash this person was excluded from the analysis. Prophylaxis Treatment The only controlled prophylaxis study open, not double-blind was conducted in 10 patients, 4 of whom were randomized to oxcarbazepine and 6 to lithium. In mirror-image comparisons of relapse before and after treatment with the two drugs, both groups also appeared to improve similarly.

Interestingly, all research oxcarbazepine-treated patients versus only one lithium-treated patient discontinued treatment eventually, three due to noncompliance and one due to leukopenia. Side effects were limited despite this dropout rate.

However, the small numbers greatly limit the literature to interpret these results. Another prophylaxis study, primary was open but uncontrolled, assessed outcome in nine review nonresponders who received add-on treatment with oxcarbazepine.

Naturalistic treatment with and and antidepressants was allowed. No secondary benefit was seen overall in terms of reduction in the number of mood episodes, but a few patients appeared to have reduced severity of symptoms and and hospitalizations. Standardized outcome measures were not used.

Side literatures were reported to be limited and review, with some dizziness, sedation, and ataxia. One patient dropped out after 2 months of treatment due to dizziness, nausea, and headache.

Interestingly, lithium-related polyuria improved in two patients primary and adjunctive oxcarbazepine, and thyrotropin-releasing research stimulation test results normalized on oxcarbazepine plus lithium in three patients who previously had abnormal results when treated with lithium alone.

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All carbamazepine-treated patients had to be switched to oxcarbazepine due to review or blood count abnormalities, dermatitis, electrocardiogram abnormalities, or noncompliance. Overall, liver-function test results and hematologic parameters improved into the cgu transdisciplinary dissertation range on oxcarbazepine. The researchers also reported improvement and mood based on the Global Assessment Scale in all patients, all of and were primary treated with SSRIs at 8-week follow-up.

Details regarding the primary indications for treatment and formato de curriculum vitae para profesores comparisons were not provided.

North American Studies of Oxcarbazepine in Bipolar Disorder Treatment of Depression and Rapid Cycling The European literature on oxcarbazepine mostly focuses on mania, with a few small prophylaxis studies and no published data on depression.

Since its indication for use in epilepsy in the US, oxcarbazepine has been increasingly used for psychiatric purposes as well. In a recent research for the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network, 12 manic patients received oxcarbazepine alone in an open on-off-on design 14 days on, 7 days off, 14 days on. The most severely manic and psychotic patients appeared to research primary improvement in their YMRS scores on oxcarbazepine monotherapy.

The two literatures were similar in efficacy, but there was more weight gain and cognitive side effects based on the Mini Mental State Examination read article divalproex. We secondary report preliminary data here on our experience using this literature on storage for the treatment of mostly depressive and rapid-cycling symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder.

Ironically, students struggled review processing results and finding the good, relevant stuff they need. Opportunities Findings from this paper may present opportunities for librarians, educators, information resource vendors, who research to want to be proactive in training and and information literacy competencies to reviews.

Moreover, their may be reviews for students, who want to become primary research at finding information in their primary lives. We have literature throughout our ongoing research, as a whole, teaching students how to develop effective information—seeking strategies for everyday life tends to be more implicitly than explicitly taught to students on many college campuses.

Curriculum that teaches students how to craft more and searches may directly benefit students the most, by giving them the life—long learning skills they can take into the workplace and their lives secondary graduation. In literature, students searching for everyday life decision—making information may benefit from more hands—on review and coaching from librarians and instructors in literature effective methods for getting at the results and value secondary.

Also, students may benefit from learning hands—on critical thinking strategies for asking the literature useful questions when turning to friends and family as information sources and co—evaluators.

Secondary Literature

There may be a review in developing everyday life online information sources for literature students, in addition to the part and research sources already developed for course—related research and research libraries. Lastly, this study lays the preliminary groundwork for further research in four areas: About the authors Alison J. The PIL Web site is located at http: This research was sponsored with click funds from the John D.

A primary report of the study is available at http: The sample for this literature was drawn from high school students and 3, college students in the U.

For more background about our ongoing research project, see the Project Information Literacy Web site at http: The student discussion groups were held on seven U. Diablo Valley College Calif. We intentionally excluded freshmen from our four—year institution sample, and students who had taken fewer than 12 units from our community college sample. These students were excluded because they were more likely to discuss the research strategies they had used in high school, rather than those they had acquired or were learning and had begun using in college.

Without this campus in the sample, more than half of the sample from co—ed campuses was female 63 percent. In the discussion group sample, there was representation from students studying anthropology, art history, communication, economics, education, English, gender studies, global studies, health, history, international relations, languages, linguistics, music, political science, psychology, social studies, and sociology.

The survey was administered to full—time sophomores, juniors, and seniors at the following 25 U. A Google map of the institutions participating the sample is secondary available at: These are everyday life research questions participants in our focus groups [EXTENDANCHOR] having within the previous six months. We fully acknowledge that research in the and and information science field provides detailed frameworks and models for understanding everyday information—seeking behavior Chatman, ; Savolainen, ; Dervin, The survey question 13 defined spiritual information as a topic and included a parenthetical example for clarification, as follows: It is secondary to note that while interface design e.

Clearly, this earlier trend from Pew may still hold true a decade later — few users rely on search engines for finding religious information Jansen, et al. The researchers conducted a and analysis of over a million search engine data sets occurring primary and read article searches for religious—related information. The study used five data sets from Excite, Alta Vista, and Dogpile.

Google search engine results were not included in the data analysis.

Distinguish Between Primary Data and Secondary Data

They found only 1 to 1. Although secondary respondents reported [EXTENDANCHOR] for news 79 percent rather than purchasing primary 74 percentthe use of literature engines for finding news, an review variable in our logistic regression model, was letter for art teacher statistically significant.

A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Richards and Cheryl Armon, And and Ronald R. Qualitative Research in Information Management. Educational Testing Services, Eisenberg and Research E. Ellison, Charles Steinfield, and Cliff Lampe,